In this paper, a model for intermediate band solar cells is built based on the generally understood physical concepts ruling semiconductor device operation, with special emphasis on the behavior at low temperature. The model is compared to JL–VOC measurements at concentrations up to about 1000 suns and at temperatures down to 20 K, as well as measurements of the radiative recombination obtained from electroluminescence. The agreement is reasonable. It is found that the main reason for the reduction of open circuit voltage is an operational reduction of the bandgap, but this effect disappears at high concentrations or at low temperatures.
Luque, A., Linares, P. G., Antolín, E., Ramiro, I., Farmer, C. D., Hernández, E., … & Martí, A. (2012). Understanding the operation of quantum dot intermediate band solar cells. Journal of applied physics, 111(4), 044502.